Processing Instructions for Textiles :
Natural fibres : cotton, silk (viscose) and linen
Synthetic fibres : polyester (modified polyester Trevira® CS) and polyamide)
The thickness of the textiles, and the way in which they are spun, determine the strength and weight of the material. Cotton textiles are made of natural fibers and have a slightly rough surface. Various weaving defects are sorted out in the manufacturing process and, generally, fuzz is eliminated by singeing. Despite these quality control methods, small weaving defects and individual fuzz spots cannot be completely eliminated and do not constitute grounds for complaint. Synthetic textiles have a smooth, slightly shiny surface. Rough defects are sorted out during product inspection. Small defects are normally flagged.
The German textile industry has unilaterally set a tolerance for defects. This tolerance allows for a maximum of 10 defects per 100 meters (328 feet). These defects must however also be differentiated. For example, some defects are very small stains or slight discolorations which are unnoticeable after printing and do not represent a defect which counts. Others are knitting defects or larger stains. In general, single defects should not be longer than 1 meter.
Defect tolerances :
Defects in textile manufacturing cannot be avoided. All defects, which fall outside of the agreed upon normal range, are sorted out during the material control. Complaints are not accepted for knobs, yarn breakage, thick and thin areas, fuzz and hanging threads from 5 to 10 cm in size.
The following tolerances are to be accepted according to §7, number 3, German Unit Conditions :
- differences in length + / – 3 %
- differences in weight + / – 3 %
- differences in width + / – 1 – 2,5 %
- tolerance at bias + / – 1,5 % at the fabric width
- post-treatment shrinkage + / – 3 – 5 %
- after washing fabric can shrink + / – 1 – 3 %
- difference in fibre composition + / – 5 – 10 %
- difference in colours, e.g. degree of whiteness
Material should always be closely observed during printing to avoid any eventual damage to the printing head. To eliminate the possibility of a material jam, the printing head should not be set too close to the material. Hemmed material is printed on at your own risk as the thicker edges represent a jamming risk.
Weaving and knitting
Weaving : 2-thread system (warp / weft)
Knitting : 1-thread system (only warp)
The surface of the material is characterised by the way of weaving or knitting. Depending on the arrangement of warp and weft the certain surfaces can be achieved. The most popular surface structures/bonds are :
Satin : a shiny, smooth textile; Nettle : a straight canvas bond (1 thread up / 1 thread down – warp / werft) with a symmetrical surface; Canvas : a heavy nettle fabric (e.g. painting); Twill : a tight canvas bond with diagonal lines (e.g. jeans).